Product Model

Where applicable, the CDM follows the data structure of the Financial Products Markup Language (FpML), which is widely used in the OTC Derivatives market. For example, the CDM type PayerReceiver is equivalent to the FpML PayerReceiver.model. Both of these are data structures used frequently throughout each respective model. In other cases, the CDM data structure is more normalised, per requirements from the CDM Design Working Group. For example, price and quantity are represented in a single type, TradableProduct, which is shared by all products. Another example is the use of a composable product model whereby:

  • Economic terms are specified by composition, For example, the InterestRatePayout type is a component used in the definition of any product with one or more interest rate legs (e.g. Interest Rate Swaps, Equity Swaps, and Credit Default Swaps).

  • Product qualification is inferred from those economic terms rather than explicitly naming the product type, whereas FpML qualifies the product explcitly through the product substitution group.

Regardless of whether the data structure is the same or different from FpML, the CDM includes defined Synonyms that map to FpML (and other models) and can be used for transformation purposes. More details on Synonyms are provided in the Mapping (Synonym) section of this document.

TradableProduct

A tradable product represents a financial product that is ready to be traded, meaning that there is an agreed financial product, price, quantity, and other details necessary to complete an execution of a security or a negotiated contract between two counterparties. Tradable products are represented by the TradableProduct type.

type TradableProduct:
   product Product (1..1)
   tradeLot TradeLot (1..*)
   counterparty Counterparty (2..2)
   ancillaryParty AncillaryParty (0..*)
   adjustment NotionalAdjustmentEnum (0..1)

Note

The conditions for this data type are excluded from the snippet above for purposes of brevity.

The primary set of attributes represented in the TradableProduct data type are ones that are shared by all trades and transactions. For example, every trade has a price, a quantity (treated jointly as a trade lot), and a pair of counterparties. In some cases, there are ancillary parties, or an allowable adjustment to the notional quantity. All of the other attributes required to describe a product are defined in distinct product data types.

Counterparty

The counterparty attribute of a TradableProduct is constrained to be exactly of cardinality 2. The CDM enforces that a transaction can only occur between a pair of counterparties, with any other party involved in the transaction represented by the ancillaryParty attribute.

The counterparty attribute uses the Counterparty data type, which links a specific Party object identifying that party to its role in the transaction. The counterparty roles in the CDM are normalised to be either Party1 or Party2 and captured as a pair of enumerated values.

This design allows to use anonymised Party1 and Party2 values to specify the direction of flows in the definition of a tradable product without having to reference specific parties. This means that the same product can now be defined in a party-agnostic way and used to represent transactions between potentially many different parties.

type Counterparty:
  role CounterpartyRoleEnum (1..1)
  partyReference Party (1..1)
    [metadata reference]
enum CounterpartyRoleEnum:
  Party1
  Party2
type Party:
  [metadata key]
  partyId PartyIdentifier (1..*)
  name string (0..1)
    [metadata scheme]
  businessUnit BusinessUnit (0..*)
  person NaturalPerson (0..*)
  account Account (0..1)
  contactInformation ContactInformation (0..1)

Note

The partyReference attribute in Counterparty is annotated with a [metadata reference], which means that a reference to the party object can be passed in instead of a copy. In that case, the attribute’s type must itself be annotated with a [metadata key], so that it is referenceable via a key. The use of the key / reference mechanism is further detailed in the Rosetta DSL documentation.

TradeLot

A trade lot represents the quantity and price at which a product is being traded.

In certain markets, trading the same product with the same economics (except for price and quantity) and the same counterparty may be treated as a separate trade. Each trade is represented by a tradable product containing only 1 trade lot. In other markets, trading the same product with the same characteristics (except for price and quantity) is represented as part of the same trade. In this case, a single tradable product contains multiple trade lots represented as an array of the TradeLot data type.

When a trade can have multiple trade lots, increases (or upsize) and decreases (or unwind) are treated differently. An increase adds a new TradeLot instance to the tradadable product, whereas a decrease reduces the quantity of one or more of the existing trade lots.

Note

The term lot is borrowed from the Equity terminology that refers to each trade lot as a tax lot, where the capital gains tax that may arise upon unwind is calculated based on the price at which the lot was entered.

For each trade lot, the quantity and price are represented by an attribute called priceQuantity.

type TradeLot:
  lotIdentifier Identifier (0..*)
  priceQuantity PriceQuantity (1..*)

The pricequantity attribute is represented as an array of the PriceQuantity data type. For composite financial products that are made of different legs, each leg may require its own price and quantity attributes, and each instance of a PriceQuantity data type identifies the relevant information for the leg of a trade. For example, for an Interest Rate Swap, a trade lot would have one instance of the PriceQuantity data type for each interest leg, and potentially a third one for an upfront fee. By comparison, the purchase or sale of a security or listed derivative would typically have a single PriceQuantity instance in the trade lot.

PriceQuantity

The price and quantity attributes of a trade, or of a leg of a trade in the case of composite products, are part of a data type called PriceQuantity. This data type also contains (optionally):

  • an observable, which describes the asset or reference index to which the price and quantity are related

  • settlement terms and the buyer/seller direction, in case that price and quantity are meant to be settled

  • a date, which indicates when these price and quantity become effective

type PriceQuantity:
  [metadata key]
  price PriceSchedule (0..*)
    [metadata location]
  quantity NonNegativeQuantitySchedule (0..*)
    [metadata location]
  observable Observable (0..1)
  buyerSeller BuyerSeller (0..1)
  settlementTerms SettlementTerms (0..1)
  effectiveDate AdjustableOrRelativeDate (0..1)

Note

The conditions for this data type are excluded from the snippet above for purposes of brevity.

The price, quantity and observable attributes are joined together in a single PriceQuantity data type because in some cases, those 3 attributes need to be considered together. For example, the return leg of an Equity Swap will have:

  • the identifier for the shares as observable

  • the number of shares as quantity

  • the initial share price as price

However, those attributes are optional because in other cases, only some of them will be specified. In the fixed leg of an Interest Rate Swap, there is no observable as the rate is already fixed. An option trade will contain an instance of a PriceQuantity containing only the premium as price attribute, but no quantity or observable (the quantity and/or observable for the option underlyer will be specified in a different PriceQuantity instance).

Both the price and quantity can be specified as arrays in a single PriceQuantity. All elements in the array express the same values but according to different conventions. For example, the return leg of an Equity Swap may specify both the number of shares and the notional (a currency amount equal to: number of shares x price per share) as quantities. In a Forward FX trade, the spot rate, forward points and forward rate (equal to spot rate + forward points) may all be specified as prices. When mutiple values are specified for either the price or quantity attributes in a single PriceQuantity instance, they will be tied by rules that enforce that they are internally consistent.

The effective date attribute is optional and will usually be specified when a single trade has multiple trade lots, to indicate when each trade lot become effective (usually on or around the date when the lot was traded). The trade itself will have an effective date, corresponding to the date when the first lot was traded and the trade opened.

The price and quantity attributes in the PriceQuantity data type each have a metadata location which can reference a metadata address in one of the Payout data types. The metadata address-location pair allows for a reference to link objects without populating the address object in persistence. This capability helps to support an agnostic definition of the product in a trade (i.e. a product definition without a price and quantity). However, the reference can be used to populate values for an input into a function or for other purposes.

Measure

A measure is a basic component that is useful in the definition of price and quantity (both things that can be measured) and consists of two attributes:

  • value, which is defined as a number and could be a price or a quantity

  • unit, which defines the unit in which that value is expressed

MeasureBase defines the basic structure of a measure in which both attributes are optional. Various other data types that extend MeasureBase can further constrain the existence of those attributes: for instance, a Measure requires the value attribute to be present (but unit is still optional because a measure could be unit-less).

type MeasureBase:
  value number (0..1)
  unit UnitType (0..1)
type Measure extends MeasureBase:

  condition ValueExists:
    value exists

The UnitType data type used to defined the unit attribute requires the definition of units using one of five defined types:

type UnitType:
  capacityUnit CapacityUnitEnum (0..1)
  weatherUnit WeatherUnitEnum (0..1)
  financialUnit FinancialUnitEnum (0..1)
  currency string (0..1)
    [metadata scheme]

  condition UnitType:
     one-of

A measure can vary over time. One often used case is a series of measures indexed by date. Such measures are all homogeneous, so the unit only needs to be represented once.

To represent this, the MeasureSchedule type extends MeasureBase with a set of date and value pair attributes represented by the DatedValue type. In that structure, the existing value attribute can still be omitted but, when present, represents the schedule’s initial value.

type MeasureSchedule extends MeasureBase:
  datedValue DatedValue (0..*)

  condition ValueExists:
    value exists or datedValue exists

The price and quantity concepts for financial instruments are both modelled as extensions of the MeasureSchedule data type, as detailed below. This means that by default, price and quantity are considered as schedules although they can also represent a single value when the datedValue attribute is omitted.

Price

The PriceSchedule data type extends the MeasureSchedule data type with the addition of the priceExpression and perUnitOf attributes, which together further qualify the price.

type PriceSchedule extends MeasureSchedule:
  priceExpression PriceExpression (1..1)
  perUnitOf UnitType (0..1)

Note that the conditions for this data type are excluded from the snippet above for purposes of brevity.

The Price data type further constrains the PriceSchedule data type by requiring the datedValue attribute to be absent.

type Price extends PriceSchedule:
  condition AmountOnlyExists:
    value exists and datedValue is absent

Consider the example below for the initial price of the underlying equity in a single-name Equity Swap, which is a net price of 37.44 USD per Share:

"price": [
  {
    "value": {
      "value": 37.44,
      "unit": {
        "currency": {
          "value": "USD"
          }
        },
        "perUnitOf": {
          "financialUnit": "SHARE"
        },
        "priceExpression": {
          "priceType": "ASSET_PRICE",
          "grossOrNet": "NET"
        },
      },
      "meta": {
        "location": [
          {
            "scope": "DOCUMENT",
            "value": "price-1"
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  ]

The full form of this example can be seen by ingesting one of the samples provided in the CDM distribution under products / equity / eqs-ex01-single-underlyer-execution-long-form-other-party.xml. As can be seen in the full example, for an interest rate leg, the unit and the perUnitOf would both be a currency (e.g. 0.002 USD per USD). The priceType would be an InterestRate and, in the case of a floating leg, the spreadType would be a Spread.

Quantity

The QuantitySchedule data type also extends the MeasureSchedule data type with the addition of an optional multiplier attributes. It also requires the unit attribute to exist, i.e. a quantity cannot be unit-less. The NonNegativeQuantitySchedule data type further constrains it by requiring that all the values are non-negative.

type QuantitySchedule extends MeasureSchedule:
  multiplier Measure (0..1)
  frequency Frequency (0..1)

  condition Quantity_multiplier:
      if multiplier exists then multiplier -> value >= 0.0
  condition UnitOfAmountExists:
      unit exists
type NonNegativeQuantitySchedule extends QuantitySchedule:

  condition NonNegativeQuantity_amount:
    if value exists then value >= 0.0 and
    if datedValue exists then datedValue -> value all >= 0.0

The inherited attributes of value, unit and datedValue (in case the quantity is provided as a schedule) are sufficient to define a quantity in most cases.

The additional multiplier attribute that is provided for the QuantitySchedule data type allows to further qualify the value. This is needed for listed contracts or other purposes, as shown below. In this example, the trade involves the purchase or sale of 200 contracts of the WTI Crude Oil futures contract on the CME. Each contract represents 1,000 barrels, therefore the total quantity of the trade is for 200,000 barrels.

"quantity": [
  {
    "value": {
      "value": 200,
      "unit": {
        "financialUnit": "CONTRACT"
      },
      "multiplier": {
        "value": 1000,
        "unit": "BBL"
      }
    },
    "meta": {
      "location": [
        {
          "scope": "DOCUMENT",
          "value": "quantity-1"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
]

The frequency attribute is used in a similar way when a quantity may be defined based on a given time period, e.g. per hour or per day. In this case, the quantity needs to be multiplied by the size of the relevant period where it applies, e.g. a number of days, to get the total quantity.

Observable

The Observable data type specifies the reference object to be observed for a price, which could be an underlying asset or a reference such as an index.

The Observable data type requires the specification of either a rateOption (i.e. a floating rate index), commodity, productIdentifier, or currencypair. This choice constraint is supported by specifying a one-of condition, as shown below:

type Observable:
  [metadata key]
  rateOption FloatingRateOption (0..1)
    [metadata location]
  commodity Commodity (0..1)
    [metadata location]
  productIdentifier ProductIdentifier (0..*)
    [metadata location]
  currencyPair QuotedCurrencyPair (0..1)
    [metadata location]
  optionReferenceType OptionReferenceTypeEnum (0..1)

  condition ObservableChoice:
    required choice rateOption, commodity, productIdentifier, currencyPair

SettlementTerms

In both the Equity Swap and Interest Rate Swap trade cases mentioned above, there are no settlement terms attached to the price and quantity. Instead, any future settlement is driven by the product mechanics and the price and quantity are just parameters in the definition of that product.

In other cases, it is necessary to define settlement terms when either the price or quantity or both are to be settled. A non-exhaustive list of cases includes:

  • A cash transaction, i.e. when buying a certain quantity of a security or commodity for a certain price

  • An FX spot of forward transaction

  • An option for which a premium must be paid

  • A swap transaction that involves an upfront payment, e.g. in case of unwind or novation

In those cases, the corresponding PriceQuantity object also contains settlementTerms and buyerSeller attributes to define that settlement. The actual settlement amounts will use the price and quantity agreed as part of the tradable product.

The SettlementTerms data type defines the basic characteristics of a settlement: the settlement date, currency, whether it will be cash or physical, and the type of transfer. For instance, a settlement could be a delivery-versus-payment scenario for a cash security transaction or a payment-versus-payment scenario for an FX spot or forward transaction. Those parameters that are common across all settlement methods are captured by the SettlementBase data type.

Cash and physical settlement methods require different, specific parameters which are captured by the additional cashSettlementTerms and physicalSettlementTerms attributes, respectively. For instance, a non-deliverable FX forward will use the cashSettlementTerms attribute to represent the parameters of the non-deliverable settlement, such as the observable FX fixing to use.

type SettlementTerms extends SettlementBase:
  cashSettlementTerms CashSettlementTerms (0..*)
  physicalSettlementTerms PhysicalSettlementTerms (0..1)
type SettlementBase:
  [metadata key]
  settlementType SettlementTypeEnum (1..1)
  transferSettlementType TransferSettlementEnum (0..1)
  settlementCurrency string (0..1)
    [metadata scheme]
  settlementDate SettlementDate (0..1)

BuyerSeller

When a settlement occurs for the price and/or quantity, it is necessary to define the direction of that settlement by specifying which party pays what. That direction is captured by the BuyerSeller data type, that uses the normalised CounterpartyRoleEnum enumeration to specify who is the buyer and seller, respectively.

type BuyerSeller:
  buyer CounterpartyRoleEnum (1..1)
  seller CounterpartyRoleEnum (1..1)

By convention, the direction of the settlement flows will be inferred as follows:

  • the buyer receives the quantity / pays the price, and

  • the seller receives the price / pays the quantity.

For instance in an FX spot or forward transaction, the respective units of the quantity and price will determine who is paying or receiving each currency.

Financial Product

A financial product is an instrument that is used to transfer financial risk between two parties. Financial products are represented in the Product type, which is also constrained by a one-of condition, meaning that for a single Tradable Product, there can only be one Product.

type Product:
  [metadata key]
  contractualProduct ContractualProduct (0..1)
  index Index (0..1)
  loan Loan (0..1)
  foreignExchange ForeignExchange (0..1)
  commodity Commodity (0..1)
    [metadata address "pointsTo"=Observable->commodity]
  security Security (0..1)
  basket Basket (0..1)

  condition: one-of

The CDM allows any one of these products to included in a trade or used as an underlier for another product (see the Underlier section). One unlikely case for a direct trade is Index, which is primarily used as an underlier.

Among this set of products, the contractual product is the most complicated and requires the largest data structure. In a contractual product, an exchange of financial risk is materialised by a unique bilateral contract that specifies the financial obligations of each party. The terms of the contract are specified at trade inception and apply throughout the life of the contract (which can last for decades for certain long-dated products), unless amended by mutual agreement. Contractual products are fungible (in other words, replaceable by other identical or similar contracts) only under specific terms: e.g. the existence of a close-out netting agreement between the parties.

Given that each contractual product transaction is unique, all of the contract terms must be specified and stored in an easily accessible transaction lifecycle model so that each party can evaluate the financial and counterparty risks during the life of the agreement.

Foreign Exchange (FX) spot and forward trades (including Non-Deliverable Forwards) and private loans also represent an exchange of financial risk represented by a form of bilateral agreements. FX forwards and private loans can have an extended term, and are generally not fungible. However, these products share few other commonalities with contractual products such as Interest Rate Swaps. Therefore, they are defined separately.

By contrast, in the case of the execution of a security (e.g. a listed equity), the exchange of finanical risk is a one-time event that takes place on the settlement date, which is usually within a few business days of the agreement. The other significant distinction is that securities are fungible instruments for which the terms and security identifiers are publically available. Therefore, the terms of the security do not have to be stored in a transaction lifecycle model, but can be referenced with public identifiers.

An Index product is an exception because it’s not directly tradable, but is included here because it can be referenced as an underlier for a tradable product and can be identified by a public identifier.

Contractual Product

The scope of contractual products in the current model are summarized below:

  • Interest rate derivatives:

    • Interest Rate Swaps (incl. cross-currency swaps, non-deliverable swaps, basis swaps, swaps with non-regular periods, …)

    • Swaptions

    • Caps/floors

    • FRAs

    • OTC Options on Bonds

  • Credit derivatives:

    • Credit Default Swaps (incl. baskets, tranche, swaps with mortgage and loans underlyers, …)

    • Options on Credit Default Swaps

  • Equity derivatives:

    • Equity Swaps (single name)

  • Options:

    • Any other OTC Options (incl. FX Options)

  • Securities Lending:

    • Single underlyer, cash collateralised, open/term security loan

In the CDM, contractual products are represented by the ContractualProduct type:

type ContractualProduct extends ProductBase:
   [metadata key]
   [metadata template]
   economicTerms EconomicTerms (1..1)

Note that price, quantity and counterparties are defined in TradableProduct as these are attributes common to all products. The remaining economic terms of the contractual product are defined in EconomicTerms which is an encapsulated type in ContractualProduct .

Economic Terms

The CDM specifies the various sets of possible remaining economic terms using the EconomicTerms type. This type includes contractual provisions that are not specific to the type of payout, but do impact the value of the contract, such as effective date, termination date, date adjustments, and early termination provisions. A valid population of this type is constrained by a set of conditions which are not shown here in the interests of brevity.

type EconomicTerms:
  effectiveDate AdjustableOrRelativeDate (0..1)
  terminationDate AdjustableOrRelativeDate (0..1)
  dateAdjustments BusinessDayAdjustments (0..1)
  payout Payout (1..1)
  terminationProvision TerminationProvision (0..1)
  extraordinaryEvents ExtraordinaryEvents (0..1)
  calculationAgent CalculationAgent (0..1)
  nonStandardisedTerms boolean (0..1)

Payout

The Payout type defines the composable payout types, each of which describes a set of terms and conditions for the financial responsibilities between the contractual parties. Payout types can be combined to compose a product. For example, an Equity Swap can be composed by combining an InterestRatePayout and an PerformancePayout.

type Payout:
  [metadata key]
  interestRatePayout InterestRatePayout (0..*)
  creditDefaultPayout CreditDefaultPayout (0..1)
  optionPayout OptionPayout (0..*)
  commodityPayout CommodityPayout (0..*)
  forwardPayout ForwardPayout (0..*)
  fixedPricePayout FixedPricePayout (0..*)
  securityPayout SecurityPayout (0..*)
  securityFinancePayout SecurityFinancePayout (0..*)
  cashflow Cashflow (0..*)
  performancePayout PerformancePayout (0..*)

A number of payout types extend a common data type called PayoutBase. This data type provides a common structure for attributes such as quantity, price, settlement terms and the payer/receiver direction which are expected to be common across many payouts.

type PayoutBase:
  payerReceiver PayerReceiver (1..1)
  priceQuantity ResolvablePriceQuantity (0..1)
  principalPayment PrincipalPayments (0..1)
  settlementTerms SettlementTerms (0..1)

The list of payouts that extend PayoutBase are:

  • InterestRatePayout

  • EquityPayout

  • OptionPayout

  • SecurityFinancePayout

  • Cashflow

  • the ProtectionTerms data type encapsulated in CreditDefaultPayout

For example:

type InterestRatePayout extends PayoutBase:
   [metadata key]
   rateSpecification RateSpecification (0..1)
   dayCountFraction DayCountFractionEnum (0..1)
      [metadata scheme]
   calculationPeriodDates CalculationPeriodDates (0..1)
   paymentDates PaymentDates (0..1)
   paymentDate AdjustableDate (0..1)
   paymentDelay boolean (0..1)
   resetDates ResetDates (0..1)
   discountingMethod DiscountingMethod (0..1)
   compoundingMethod CompoundingMethodEnum (0..1)
   cashflowRepresentation CashflowRepresentation (0..1)
   stubPeriod StubPeriod (0..1)
   bondReference BondReference (0..1)
   fixedAmount calculation (0..1)
   floatingAmount calculation (0..1)

Note

The code snippets above excludes the conditions in this data type for purposes of brevity.

The price and quantity attributes in the PayoutBase structure are positioned in the ResolvablePriceQuantity data type. This data type mirrors the PriceQuantity data type and contains both the price and quantity schedules.

In addition that data type supports the definition of additional information such as a quantity reference, a quantity multiplier or the indication that the quantity is resettable. Those are used to describe the quantity of a payout leg that may need to be calculated based on other inputs: e.g. an exchange rate for the foreign leg in a Cross-Currency Swap or a share price for the funding leg of an Equity Swap.

type ResolvablePriceQuantity:
  [metadata key]
  resolvedQuantity Quantity (0..1)
  quantitySchedule NonNegativeQuantitySchedule (0..1)
    [metadata address "pointsTo"=PriceQuantity->quantity]
  quantityReference ResolvablePriceQuantity (0..1)
    [metadata reference]
  quantityMultiplier QuantityMultiplier (0..1)
  reset boolean (0..1)
  futureValueNotional FutureValueAmount (0..1)
  priceSchedule PriceSchedule (0..*)
    [metadata address "pointsTo"=PriceQuantity->price]

By design, the CDM requires that each payout leg can only be associated with a single quantity schedule that defines this leg’s contractual behaviour (e.g. for the payment of cashflows). In the PriceQuantity object, where that attribute is of multiple cardinality, other quantities may be provided “for information only” which can be inferred from the main quantity used in the payout leg: e.g. when a commodity quantity is associated to a frequency and needs to be multiplied by the period to get the total quantity.

Both the quantitySchedule and priceSchedule attributes have a metadata address that point respectively to the quantity and price attributes in the PriceQuantity data type. This special cross-referencing annotation in the Rosetta DSL allows to parameterise an attribute whose value may be variable by associating it to an address. The attribute value does not need to be populated in the persisted object and can be provided by another object, using the address as a reference.

Other model structures use the [metadata address] to point to PriceQuantity->price. An example include the price attribute in the RateSchedule data type, which is illustrated below:

type RateSchedule:
  price PriceSchedule (1..1)
    [metadata address "pointsTo"=PriceQuantity->price]

Reusable Components

There are a number of components that are reusable across several payout types. For example, the CalculationPeriodDates class describes the inputs for the underlying schedule of a stream of payments.

type CalculationPeriodDates:
  [metadata key]
  effectiveDate AdjustableOrRelativeDate (0..1)
  terminationDate AdjustableOrRelativeDate (0..1)
  calculationPeriodDatesAdjustments BusinessDayAdjustments (0..1)
  firstPeriodStartDate AdjustableOrRelativeDate (0..1)
  firstRegularPeriodStartDate date (0..1)
  firstCompoundingPeriodEndDate date (0..1)
  lastRegularPeriodEndDate date (0..1)
  stubPeriodType StubPeriodTypeEnum (0..1)
  calculationPeriodFrequency CalculationPeriodFrequency (0..1)

Underlier

The underlier attribute on types OptionPayout, ForwardPayout and EquityPayout allows for any product to be used as the underlier for a corresponding products option, forward, and equity swap.

type OptionPayout extends PayoutBase:
  [metadata key]
  buyerSeller BuyerSeller (1..1)
  optionType OptionTypeEnum (0..1)
  feature OptionFeature (0..1)
  exerciseTerms OptionExercise (1..1)
  underlier Product (1..1)

This nesting of the product component is another example of a composable product model. One use case is an interest rate swaption for which the high-level product uses the OptionPayout type and underlier is an Interest Rate Swap composed of two InterestRatePayout types. Similiarly, the product underlying an Equity Swap composed of an InterestRatePayout and an EquityPayout would be a non-contractual product: an equity security.

Data Templates

The ContractualProduct type is specified with the [metadata template] annotation indicating that it is eligible to be used as a template.

Financial markets often trade a high volume of trades with near identical contractual product data. Templates provide a way to store this data more efficiently. The contractual product data which is duplicated on each contract can be extracted into a single template and replaced by a reference. This allows each trade to specify only the unique contractual product data. The template reference can be resolved to a template object which can then be merged in to form a single, complete object.

For instance, Equity Swaps used by Equity Financing desks sometimes refer to a Master Confirmation agreement, which is an overall agreement that specifies all the standard Equity Swap terms that do not need to be renegotiated on each trade. Each contractual product would only specify the unique product details (such as start and end date, underlier, price and spread) together with a reference to the Master Confirmation containing the template product details.

Code libraries, written in Java and distributed with the CDM, contain tools to merge CDM objects together. Implementors may extend these merging tools to change the merging strategy to suit their requirements. The CDM Java Examples download, available via the CDM Portal Downloads page, contains a example demonstrating usage of a data template and the merging tools. See com.regnosys.cdm.example.template.TemplateExample.

Products with Identifiers

The abstract data type ProductBase serves as a base for all products that have an identifier, as illustrated below:

type ProductBase:
  productTaxonomy ProductTaxonomy (0..*)
  productIdentifier ProductIdentifier (0..*)

The data types that extend from ProductBase are Index, Commodity, Loan, and Security. Index and Commodity do not have any additional attributes. In the case of Commodity, the applicable product identifiers are the ISDA definitions for reference benchmarks. Loan and Security both have a set of additional attributes, as shown below:

type Loan extends ProductBase:
  borrower LegalEntity (0..*)
  lien string (0..1)
    [metadata scheme]
  facilityType string (0..1)
    [metadata scheme]
  creditAgreementDate date (0..1)
  tranche string (0..1)
    [metadata scheme]
type Security extends ProductBase:
  securityType SecurityTypeEnum (1..1)
  debtType DebtType (0..1)
  equityType EquityTypeEnum (0..1)
  fundType FundProductTypeEnum (0..1)
  economicTerms EconomicTerms (0..1)

condition DebtSubType:
  if securityType <> SecurityTypeEnum -> Debt
  then debtType is absent

condition EquitySubType:
  if securityType <> SecurityTypeEnum -> Equity
  then equityType is absent

condition FundSubType:
  if securityType <> SecurityTypeEnum -> Fund
  then fundType is absent

The product identifier will uniquely identify the security. The securityType is required for specific purposes in the model, for example for validation as a valid reference obligation for a Credit Default Swap. The additional security details are optional as these could be determined from a reference database using the product identifier as a key

Product Qualification

Product qualification is inferred from the economic terms of the product instead of explicitly naming the product type. The CDM uses a set of Product Qualification functions to achieve this purpose. These functions are identified with a [qualification Product] annotation.

A Product Qualification function applies a taxonomy-specific business logic to identify if the product attribute values, as represented by the product’s economic terms, match the specified criteria for the product named in that taxonomy. For example, if a certain set of attributes are populated and others are absent, then that specific product type is inferred. The Product Qualification function name in the CDM begins with the word Qualify followed by an underscore _ and then the product type from the applicable taxonomy (also separated by underscores).

The CDM implements the ISDA Product Taxonomy v2.0 to qualify contractual products, foreign exchange, and repurchase agreements. Given the prevalence of usage of the ISDA Product Taxonomy v1.0, the equivalent name from that taxonomy is also systematically indicated in the CDM, using a synonym annotation displayed under the function output. An example is provided below for the qualification of a Zero-Coupon Fixed-Float Inflation Swap:

func Qualify_InterestRate_InflationSwap_FixedFloat_ZeroCoupon:
   [qualification Product]
   inputs: economicTerms EconomicTerms (1..1)
   output: is_product boolean (1..1)
   set is_product:
       Qualify_BaseProduct_Inflation(economicTerms) = True
       and Qualify_SubProduct_FixedFloat(economicTerms) = True
       and Qualify_Transaction_ZeroCoupon(economicTerms) = True

If all the statements above are true, then the function evaluates to True, and the product is determined to be qualified as the product type referenced by the function name.

Note

In a typical CDM model implementation, the full set of Product Qualification functions would be invoked against each instance of the product in order to determine the inferred product type. Given the product model composability, a single product instance may be qualified as more than one type: for example in an Interest Rate Swaption, both the Option and the underlying Interest Rate Swap would be qualified.

The CDM supports Product Qualification functions for Credit Derivatives, Interest Rate Derivatives, Equity Derivatives, Foreign Exchange, and Repurchase Agreements. The full scope for Interest Rate Products has been represented down to the full level of detail in the taxonomy. This is shown in the example above, where the ZeroCoupon qualifying suffix is part of the function name. Credit Default products are qualified, but not down to the full level of detail. The ISDA Product Taxonomy v2.0 references the FpML transaction type field instead of just the product features, whose possible values are not publicly available and hence not positioned as a CDM enumeration.

The output of the qualification function is used to populate the productQualifier attribute of the ProductTaxonomy object, which is created when a ContractualProduct object is created. The product taxonomy includes both the product qualification generated by the CDM and any additional product taxonomy information which may come from the originating document, such as FpML. In this case, taxonomy schemes may be associated to such product taxonomy information, which are also propagated in the ProductTaxonomy object.

The ProductTaxonomy data structure and an instance of a CDM object (serialised into JSON) are shown below:

type ProductTaxonomy:
    primaryAssetClass AssetClassEnum (0..1)
        [metadata scheme]
    secondaryAssetClass AssetClassEnum (0..*)
        [metadata scheme]
    taxonomyValue string (0..1)
        [metadata scheme]
    taxonomySource TaxonomySourceEnum (0..1)
    productQualifier string (0..1)

    condition TaxonomyValue:
        required choice taxonomyValue, productQualifier, primaryAssetClass, secondaryAssetClass

    condition TaxonomySource:
        if taxonomySource exists then
            taxonomyValue exists or productQualifier exists
"productTaxonomy": [
  {
    "primaryAssetClass": {
      "meta": {
        "scheme": "http://www.fpml.org/coding-scheme/asset-class-simple"
      },
      "value": "INTEREST_RATE"
    },
  },
  {
    "taxonomyValue": {
      "meta": {
        "scheme": "http://www.fpml.org/coding-scheme/product-taxonomy"
      },
      "value": "InterestRate:IRSwap:FixedFloat"
    }
    "taxonomySource": "ISDA"
  },
  {
    "productQualifier": "InterestRate_IRSwap_FixedFloat",
    "taxonomySource": "ISDA"
  }
]